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    中國營銷傳播網 > 品牌經緯 > 流浪的品牌,你媽是品類

    流浪的品牌,你媽是品類


    中國營銷傳播網, 2019-06-23, 作者: 李傳玖, 訪問人數: 4308


      什么是品類?簡言之,就是產品的分類;百度百科的釋義是:指目標顧客購買某種商品的單一利益點;東哥(天圖投資首席投資官、定位實戰專家馮衛東老師)給出的定義是:消費者做出購買決策前所涉及到的最后一級分類并能由此關聯到品牌,更易理解接地氣。品牌營銷From EMKT.com.cn是站在顧客角度展開的學問,所以品類的分類標準是消費者心智中的品類,而非企業或行業的分類;比如“白色家電/黑色家電”的分類,就是企業或行業的術語或分類,而不是真正意義上的品類。

      本文談的品類是指定位理論中的產品品類,廣義的品類分產品品類、渠道品類(比如家樂福超市所屬的連鎖大賣場就是一個渠道品類)、導購品類(大眾點評就是一個選擇餐館的導購品類)等。

      一、 顧客購買的是品類,不是品牌

      我們經常說,你買的是哪一個品牌?其實消費者購買的首先是某類東西、是品類。品牌是品類或特性的代表。王老吉(品牌)是預防上火飲料(品類)的代表、紅牛(品牌)是維生素功能飲料(品類)的代表、蘋果(品牌)是智能手機(品類)的代表,這個比較好理解;什么是特性?“安全”是沃爾沃汽車的特性,“去屑”是海飛絲洗發水的特性,“大吸力”是老板牌吸油煙機的特性。

      消費者產生購買決策的心路流程是:先確定品類,再選擇品牌。比如:你請朋友去酒店吃飯,坐下來后準備點酒,你會問:今天喝什么酒?白酒、啤酒還是紅酒?朋友說:今天就喝點啤酒吧!這是先確定品類;你會接著問:好,是喝雪花、青島、燕京、還是百威?這是確定品牌。叫做“消費者以品類來思考,以品牌來表達”。所以,你想賣出東西,首先須確保顧客知道你賣的是什么,即品類,這個品類必須是顧客心中的品類,或者是顧客心智中原來沒有、但可通過字面意思調動既有認知、常識能感知理解的品類,他才能接受。否則,你的產品就進入不了顧客的備選目錄,從而失去了被選中和銷售的機會。

      舉個例子:國內一家TOP品牌的果汁飲料公司,在2010年時曾經隆重推出一款叫“果汁果樂”的飲料新“品類”,含果汁的碳酸飲料;當時的想法,可口可樂憑借一個碳酸飲料,做到全球飲料的老大,自己是中國果汁及果汁飲料的老大,我推出一款既是加汽(碳酸)又含果汁的飲品,兩邊都占了,肯定會大賣;但結果卻是銷量不好,最后不得不收縮戰線。

      原因何在?此前市場上沒有這么一個品類,可能是巨大的市場機會,同時也可能是個大坑;顧客心智中沒有這個產品概念,顧客不知道你是什么東西啊,年輕人喜歡喝飲料,買飲料時大腦決策程序基本上是:我是喝可樂呢?(可樂已經成了碳酸飲料的代名詞,并且大部分時候是指的可口可樂,可口可樂做到這一步,品牌成了品類的代名詞,算是真正成功了!),還是喝果汁飲料呢?還是喝茶飲料呢?還是喝瓶裝水呢?等等。定了品類再決定選哪個品牌。新產品果汁果樂,它的品類不在年輕人的候選目錄中,喝可樂的不容易選它、喝果汁的也不會輕易選它,它也就很難賣出去了。

      那怎么破解呢?在產品包裝上“果汁果樂”下面清楚注明“果汁+可樂”(“果汁”、“可樂”顧客已很熟悉),再通過持續有效的推廣,應該能基本解決問題。

      再舉一個例子:2000年代初期國內出現一種家用熱水器叫“空氣源熱泵熱水器”,原理是利用空氣中自然存在的熱量進行轉化把水燒熱,當時國內有很多企業進入,但銷量都慘淡不盡人意,行業面臨夭折的危險。后來廣東美的集團率先改名了,把“美的”牌空氣源熱泵熱水器改名叫“空氣能熱水器”,結果銷量一下子就上去了,后來其他同行企業也紛紛改名空氣能熱水器,整個行業都被救活了。道理不復雜:原來的名字太專業化太抽象,普通消費者看不懂搞不明白,很難購買;“空氣能熱水器”會讓人聯想到大家都熟悉的太陽能熱水器,從而產生認同感后產生購買。看,品類名多重要啊!

      重復一遍,消費者購買的是品類,只有先確定了品類,后才考慮選擇品牌。所以,你得先讓顧客知道你是什么品類,很重要哦!


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